WHAT IS TOPOGRAPHIC DISORIENTATION? What is TOPOGRAPHIC DISINTEGRATION? TOPOGRAPHIC DISORDER meaning – definition of TOPOGRAPHIC DEVELOPMENT – TOPOGRAPHIC DISCRIMINATION explanation.
Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under license.
Topographic disorientation, also known as topographical agnosia and topography of the heart, is the inability to orient itself in the environment as a result of focal brain damage. This disability may result from the inability to use selective spatial information (eg, environmental milestones) or to orient by specific cognitive strategies such as the ability to form a mental representation of the environment, also known as a cognitive map. It may be part of a syndrome known as visuospatial dysgnosia.
Topographic disorientation is the inability to orient itself in the environment as a result of focal brain damage. Topographical disorientation has been studied for decades using case studies of patients who have selectively lost their ability to find their way into large-scale locomotive environments. Several dozen reports of cases of topographical disorientation have occurred during the last century. Studying these people will help in understanding the complex behavior of multiple navigation components. Topographical disorientation may result from a stroke or part of a progressive disease, hemispatial neglect, dementia, Alzheimer's disease.
Topographical disorientation of development (DTD) refers to the inability to orient itself from infancy despite the absence of any apparent brain damage, neurological condition or general cognitive defects. People affected by the DTD can not generate a mental representation of the environment (ie a cognitive map) and therefore can not make use of it while guiding (a process that is usually passed by people while guiding). Not to be confused with healthy people who have a poor sense of direction, people affected by DTD are lost in a very familiar environment, such as their home or neighborhood, every day.
The egocentric disorientation is marked by the inability to represent the location of objects with respect to the self. This is usually due to lesions in the posterior parietal lobe. Patients do not experience difficulties recognizing or naming people or objects. They are unable to accurately reach visual objects and are not able to establish the relationship between an object with itself (up, down, left, right, closer or farther). In a case study presented by Stark and colleagues, a patient named GW described the inability to accurately reach visual targets despite normal vision. He had no difficulty in recognizing and naming objects presented to him, but he was unable to identify target locations defined by visual, proprioceptive, or audio input. The loss of a system of egocentric spatial representation left her unable to position herself in space. Most indicative of his disability is that he often turned in the wrong direction when he was greeted by someone he was not facing
The disorientation of course is marked by the inability to represent the direction of orientation with respect to the external environment. This is usually due to lesions in the posterior cingulate. Patients show no signs of visuospatial agnosia. Patients are able to determine their location using landmarks, but are unable to determine which direction should come from those landmarks to reach their destination. They are also affected in map drawing tasks and can not describe routes between family locations. Takahashi and his colleagues reported three cases of focal brain damage to the right retroplenial region through a brain hemorrhage that caused a loss in direction. The three patients showed normal visual perception, were able to identify buildings and family landscapes, were able to identify and remember places of objects that could be seen from where they were standing, but were unable to remember the direction of selective family benchmarks . The symptoms of topographic disorientation disappeared in all three patients after two months.
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