Over 60% of all causes of dementia in the world are Alzheimer's disease.
Dementia is a disease characterized by multiple cognitive symptoms such as attention deficit, loss of memory, reduced learning ability, loss of orientation, thought disorder, loss of calculation skills.
Alzheimer's disease is more common in women. The onset of the disease is between 40 and 90 years of age, but usually after 65 years.
It is a primary dementia because the cause is unknown. However, it appears that positive family history is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease.
What happens in the brain is that many neurons are stained, so that their number decreases dramatically.
The most important macroscopic changes that can be seen on a CT scan are:
– cortical atrophy
– enlargement of the space between the brain and the skull
– enlargement of the grooves between the cortical gyri
– enlargement of the ventricles in the brain
At an early stage, patients begin to forget names, directions, tasks, words, places where they put things. At this stage patients may be aware of their problem, but try to hide it. Awareness of the disease can cause anxiety or even depression.
At the next stage of the disease, patients experience speech disorders, memory loss, disorientation over time and space and can be lost if they go out on their own. Patients should be supervised to prevent accidents such as falls or fires.
In the severe stage patients become indifferent to other people, including family members, who experience difficulties in swallowing, difficulty walking, and become totally dependent on others.
Patients with Alzheimer's disease usually die within 4 to 10 years from the time the diagnosis was made. The main cause of death is malnutrition, caused by difficulties in swallowing.
The most frequent complications are:
– traumatic injuries
Although there is no cure for Alzheimer's disease, medications can slow the progression of symptoms and improve quality of life.
An important advice is that there is no change in the place where patients live, as this may worsen the clinical course of the disease.
Video credits to And S YouTube channel